Đề thi IELTS Writing task 2 – 20/02/2016 – Some people believe government

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Some people believe government should spend money on building train and subway lines to reduce traffic congestion. Others think that building more and wider roads is the better way to reduce traffic congestion. Discuss both views and give your opinion.

Một số bài làm tham khảo:

1/

Traffic jam is a problematic issue in developing and developed countries. The number of transport means increases dramatically to serve the people’s demand while the infrastructure is not changing much to meet the requirement. Constructing new train and subway line is one suggestion mentioned to resolve this problem such whereas others prefer more and wider roads. Both of these opinions will be discussed in this essay.

On one hand, building new railway and subway is recommended as a long term solution for congestion. It is undeniable that the population is rising significantly which causes the climbing of transportation using demand. In order to meet this requirement, the government investing into constructing a new modern transportation system is considered as a choice. Due to the development of technology, the travelling time by these traffic means reduces noticeably. As a result, traffic congestion will be addressed. However, the facts have shown that in order to build this system, it is costly and time-consuming. Additionally, the budget for training human resources and managing a new system is high. For example, in Hanoi, construction of the railway connecting different universities lasts more than 10 years and causes a number of unexpected accidents and more traffic jam because of space dominance of another road. In short, this solution is necessary for long-run development in developed and developing countries.

On the other hand, people think that widening the road can address the traffic congestion. In comparison with building new transport system, this option saves more money and time. This advantage of widening the road instead of constructing the new one is remarkable for developing the country. According to the report, a developing country has to spend nearly ten percentages on improving transport system while this amount of money could use for education or another burning issues. Nevertheless, taking advantage of the old road to open more could lead to a situation that traffic jam is much more serious. The reason for that is the space for travelling more condensed while the number of vehicles does not reduce. Furthermore, this solution could not address the issue of connecting new residential areas because of urbanization expanded. In another word, widening the road is the short-term solution for traffic congestion.

In conclusion, each recommendation has its own advantages and disadvantages. Each country should make a decision based on the state budget and the condition of their country.

2/

In recent years, traffic congestion has become an issue many people feel strongly about. One potential solution is to recommend that national budget should be allocated to improve the road system while others believe that building train and subway lines is the priority of the authorities. The arguments on both aspects of this debate need to be examined carefully in this essay.

First of all, although there are several advantages associated with building more and wider roads, the most significant of which is it costs less money and time considerably, in comparison with building train and subway lines. In addition, the requirement of technology is not too high, hence this option is considered as a temporary solution, especially for developing countries whose national budget as well as technology is limited. However, the rate of improving road system cannot keep up with the pace of population. The area for transportation is limited while the population continues to rise significantly, which results in the steep increase in travelling demand. Therefore, after ten or twenty years, traffic congestion would become more serious unless other measures are carried out.

On the other hand, building train and subway lines is estimated as a long-term solution for traffic congestion. These vehicles can carry the large number of passengers while the space is insignificant or is situated underground. Not only would it discourage people to use private transportation and reduce travel time, but this solution would be advantageous to the environment owing to the diminution of pollutants. However, every coin has two sides. Public transportation is more inconvenient than private cars; so many people might have to take a longer trip. Furthermore, the national budget should be allocated to other important sectors, such as medical or educational programs, would be cut down. Consequently, the standard of living might decrease, which could cause a fundamental social crisis in these countries.

In conclusion, two aforementioned solutions have both benefits and drawbacks. However, I am convinced that the government should combine both short-term and long-term solutions, depending on the situation of each country.

3/

Traffic congestion is now a serious problem to almost all modern cities in the world. Traffic congestion wastes people’s valuable time, pollutes the air and reduces working productivity. While many people propose government to enhance traffic capacity by building more and wider roads, investing in public transportation is indeed a better policy.

In short term, certain amount of vehicle can run on new roads and traffic jam can be fairly reduced. However, since population keeps rising dramatically, the number of cars and bikes is emerging everyday. Unless the rate of building new roads can keep up with astonishingly rapid pace of population, after a few years traffic congestion will become as severe as it is now. Actually, the problem will be even more serious as new roads encourage the use of private vehicles instead of public trains or buses. Holding a belief that new roads will reduce congestion, more people may stop using public transportation and buy their own  cars. Bearing increase both in number of traveller and vehicle, efficiency of transportation system will eventually reduce.

The most effective way to discourage personal vehicles and enhance travel efficiency is upgrading public transportations. If the subway system has better condition and broader travel network, people will find it is more convenient to go by train. Furthermore, using public transportation is economic for both government and households. Cost of upgrading an existed system is always far lower than cost of building new roads. For citizen, especially young people, travelling by bus seems much more rational than wasting their saving to buy a car.

To sum up, while public transportation is beneficial in various views, new roads only have advantage for a very short term. For the substantial growth of cities, policy makers should be considerate of investing more in train and subway lines.

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